A Persistence Framework for Scala and NoSQL

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persisting polymorphism

When we use polymorphic persistent objects in our domain, we end up with a repository that performs operations on the parent type, as well as on all of the derived subtypes. In this example, we have a User trait, and two inheriting subclasses, Member and Commenter:

import longevity.model.annotations.derivedPersistent
import longevity.model.annotations.polyPersistent

trait User {
  val username: Username

object User {
  implicit val usernameKey = key(props.username)

@derivedPersistent[DomainModel, User]
case class Member(
  username: Username,
  email: Email,
  numCats: Int)
extends User

object Member {
  implicit val emailKey = key(props.email)

@derivedPersistent[DomainModel, User]
case class Commenter(
  username: Username)
extends User

Note that User and Member each have their own key, on username and email, respectively.

When we construct our longevity context, we get a repository that can perform persistence operations on both persistent classes. For example, we can create Users, Members, and Commenters:

import longevity.context.LongevityContext
import longevity.persistence.Repo
import scala.concurrent.ExecutionContext.Implicits.global
import scala.concurrent.Future

val context = LongevityContext[Future, DomainModel]()

val repo: Repo[Future, DomainModel] = context.repo

val user: User = Member(Username("u1"), Email("e1"), 3)
val member: Member = Member(Username("u2"), Email("e2"), 5)
val commenter: Commenter = Commenter(Username("u3"))

import longevity.persistence.PState
import scala.concurrent.Future
import scala.concurrent.ExecutionContext.Implicits.global

val fpUser: Future[PState[User]] = repo.create(user)
val fpMember: Future[PState[Member]] = repo.create(member)
val fpCommenter: Future[PState[Commenter]] = repo.create(commenter)

We can only retrieve based on the type that actually contains the key:

val retrievedUser: Future[Option[PState[User]]] =

val retrievedMember: Future[Option[PState[Member]]] =

Trying repo.retrieve[Commenter](commenter.username) would produce a compiler error, because Commenter does not have a key on username.

PStates are invariant in their Persistent type parameter, so the PStates can not be used interchangeably. Keys, KeyVals, and Queries are also all invariant in their type parameter, so in general, you want to be working with one Persistent type at a time.

That said, there is some flexibility added on to work around these invariant type parameters. For example, a PState[Member] instance is not also a PState[User]. But we can safely convert a PState[Member] into a PState[User], using method widen:

val memberState: PState[Member] = getMemberState()
val userState: PState[User] = memberState.widen[User]

And while a Query[Member] is not also a Query[User], you can use User properties when constructing your Query[Member]:

import longevity.model.query.Query
import Member.queryDsl._

val query: Query[Member] =
  User.props.username eqs Username("u7") and
  Member.props.numCats gt 2
val queryResults = repo.queryToIterator(query)
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